Experimental Setup

The ILENA experiment consists of an ion source, a beam guiding system, a sample stage with housing, and a detection unit. All these units are contained in a single vacuum chamber pumped by a turbomolecular and a ion getter pump.

Ions are formed in an electron impact ion source (Nier type), with the intensity of the primary ion beam of the order of 1pA. A 90° sector magnet allows to select the particle mass. The beam then passes through the beam guiding and modulation module to the entrance aperture of the sample housing. Diaphragms limit the beam size to a diameter of 1mm and the beam divergence.

The impact angle of the ion beam on the conversion surface can be varied between 0° and 90° with respect to the surface normal. The beam current is monitored by measuring the current from the sample to ground. A magnetic field may be applied parallel to the sample surface to retain secondary electrons. By varying this magnetic filed the secondary electron yield of a sample surface can be determined.

The reflected beam is recorded with a two-dimensional position-sensitive micro channel plate (MCP) detector with a viewing angle of +/- 12.5° in the azimuthal direction and polar direction. A retarding potential analyzer (RPA) consisting of three grids is mounted in front of the MCP detector. The detector unit, including the RPA, is shielded electrostatically and can be rotated independently of the conversion surface around the same axis. The outer grids of the RPA are grounded to shield the inner grid, which can be biased to suppress positive ions. An additional grid in front of the MCP detector at negative potential with respect to the MCP detector serves to reject secondary electrons originating from the preceding grids and the conversion surface. The MCP detector may be floated to a negative high voltage with respect to the conversion surface to eliminate negative particles. The whole assembly allows to determine the ionization yield and the reflection efficiency of a conversion surface.

After baking out the vacuum chamber a residual gas pressure of 5e-8 mbar is achieved. During operation the pressure may rise into the low 1e-7 mbar range as a result of the test gas leaking into the ion source chamber.